Background of the department
Ethiopia is a country characterized by low socio-economic status and health service
coverage. As a result, there is low ratio and improper mix of health professional to the
population. The current Ethiopian health policy is based on health promotion and disease
prevention by giving priority to the rural and unprivileged urban population. Successful
implementation of this policy is highly dependent on availability of well-trained health
professionals, both in quality and quantity.
Education is a mainstay for development and alleviation of rampant problems of a given
nation. It can offer opportunities to the citizens of a country to play a pivotal role in
bringing and sustaining the required development in various sectors in which the health
delivery system is not an exception. The laboratory service as an essential component of
the health care delivery system requires properly trainedprofessionals.
Historically, although rudimentary examinations of human body fluids date back to the
time of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates around 300 BC, simple laboratory
procedures were performed by physicians, then by laboratory assistants trained by
pathologists. However, World War I brought about a critical shortage of qualified
laboratory assistants to staff the laboratories, prompting the creation of a wide variety of
training programs to meet the growing need. The clinical laboratory work force
comprises a critical sector of the health care workforce. Due to advances in medical
technology, clinical laboratory workers perform an ever-increasing range of tests help in
detecting and diagnosing diseases or pre disease states as well as monitoring the progress
and results of treatment among other things.
Formal laboratory professionals training in Ethiopia was started in 1954. The pioneers
were the then Pastor institute now it is known as Ethiopian Public Health Institute,
Menelik II Hospital, University of Gondar (previous name Gondar Public Health College
and training center) and Jimma University (previous name Jimma Health Science
Since then, numerous laboratory professionals were trained at different levels and
assumed positions in various health institutions and contributed significantly to the
health care delivery system of the country which enabled selected laboratory technology
diploma graduates to pursue their first degree. This was followed by a five-year B.Sc.
training program for generic students under the directives of the Ministry of Education.
The five years program was subjected to series of review process to fit into a new three
years training and education policy of the country.
Currently, health institutions (hospitals, health centers, regional laboratories, and
others), higher education institutions (government and private), research
institutions and industries that require competent medical laboratory
professionals at different level of training and expertise are progressively
growing. As a consequence, ample opportunities are created for medical
laboratory science practitioners to play a vital role in the country’s development.
However, the input of these professionals to a great extent depends on the
quality of education (training) they receive in the higher learninginstitutions.
The Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MoSHE) and Federal Ministry
of Health (FMoH) coordinated different levels of workshops to prepare a
national curriculum for Medical Laboratory Science undergraduate BSc
program. As a result, with the initiative of MoSHE and contribution of experts
from FMoH, different Universities, and other stakeholders developed integrated
harmonized modular curriculum for Medical Laboratory science program.
Hence, the medical laboratory science schools/departments at different higher
education institutions are expected to adopt this new integrated harmonized
modular curriculum so as to train and produce, well-skilled and competent
Medical Laboratory Science practitioners who play a significant role in
improving medical laboratoryservices.
Based on the above given directives from MoSHE and FMoH with due
consideration of the newly designed first year common courses by MoSHE,
harmonized the curriculum and Arsi University, medcal laboratory Science
department adopted it as follows.
C. About Department
Ø Objectives of the program
· The aim of this program is to produce BSc level Medical Laboratory
Science Practitioners capable of providing quality, comprehensive and
evidence based medical laboratory services.
The specific objectives of Generic Medical Laboratory Science program are to train:
· Qualified medical laboratory science practitioners to work in health
institutions, higher institutions, research institutions and industries.
· Graduates capable of developing and promoting the medical laboratory
profession for human good.
· Competent medical laboratory science practitioners to meet the human
power needs of various health and health related institutions.
· Graduates equipped with skills to utilize classical and advanced
laboratory techniques in clinical diagnosis of human disease (in both
clinical and public health laboratory settings).
· Graduates who can test and analyze tissue, blood, and other biological
specimens collected for the purposes of criminal and other legal
· Graduates who can participate in identifying and solving the community
problems in various health perspectives.
· Competent practitioners who can maintain the professional code of ethics.
Ø Graduate Profile
A student who has successfully completed the B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Sciences
Education will be able to apply his/her knowledge, skills, and attitudes as follows:
§ Understand management, policies, principles and procedures of the medical
§ Use his/her critical thinking to improve the laboratory-working environment
§ Familiarize him/herself with latest scientific findings to improve the quality of
medical/ clinical laboratory services rendered to the society.
§ Recognize and interpret laboratory findings and correlate with common disease
§ Identify factors that affect procedures and test results, and suggest appropriate
action within predetermined limits.
§ Recognize ways of surveillance of communicable diseases
§ Confirm and verify results through an in-depth knowledge of scientific methods,
principles and instrumentation theory.
§ Recognize laboratory logistic procurement, evaluation, setup specification and
§ Understand international Medical/Clinical laboratory quality standards
§ Understand pathogenesis and diagnostic principles and methods of bacterial,
viral, fungal and parasitic diseases.
§ Recognize the physiological and pathological conditions which may affect the
biochemical and hematological parameters.
§ List factors that influence down time of lab instruments-based SOP
§ Explain the principle of radioactive detection and safety issues according to SOP
§ Identify the operating procedures of micropipettes, spectrophotometer,
electrophoresis, chromatography, cell counting automation and electrochemical
§ Acquire understanding and knowledge of project management skills, centralized
procurement and tracking of supplies and logistics
§ Understand the supply chain management and logistics system
§ Understand the process of supply chain management
§ Understand importance and role of supplier and vendor in supply chain
§ Describe cost accounting, financial statements, and bidding process in
§ Acquire cost-to-serve understanding
§ Understand the technical requirements, cross-cultural and global business and
financial issues in supply chain management
§ Understand information technology, automation knowledge, electronic business
and electronic purchases, catalogue reading and product searching
§ Define criteria for supplies or materials to be purchased
§ Consider the advantages and disadvantages of purchasing “brand name”
compared to “generic” products
§ Understand business ethics and Understand any local or national government
requirements that need to be accommodated in the contracts
§ Know supply chain management troubleshooting and problem solving, and
understand supplier relationship management
§ Know how to negotiate for the best price without undermining quality.
§ Understanding of the legal issues involved in managing contracts
§ Discuss the basic principles of resources mobilization
§ Acquire knowledge of efficient resources utilization
§ Understand the use of national resource mobilization formats
§ Describe stakeholder mapping and analysis
§ Understand the principle of receiving, inspecting, testing, storing, and handling
§ Understand the process of assessing and maintaining inventory management
§ Understand the proper distribution of laboratory supplies
§ Maintain the medical laboratory ethical code of conduct standards and
contribute to stewardship of their profession
§ Adhere to Laboratory standard operative procedures while performing tests
§ Advocate the proper use of laboratory tests.
§ Promote safety, quality control and quality assurance in clinical and public
§ Participate in policy, professional standards, continuing professional
development issues pertaining to medical laboratory profession
§ Respectful, compassionate and caring to patients, their relatives and other
§ Apply business ethics
§ Practice constant learning and thorough understanding
§ Develop good working network and integrate multiple systems
§ Adhere and follow standards for quantification, inventory management,
storage and distribution of laboratory equipment and supplies
§ Adhere and follow standard products specification
§ Aspire accreditation as important as service delivery
§ Perform routine and advanced biochemical, bacteriological, virological ,
mycological, parasitological, hematological, immunologic, and molecular
tests, on clinical, environmental, drugs, toxins and specimens of public
§ Participate and contribute in surveillance and control of communicable
disease and information dissemination in diseases outbreak situations.
§ Assist, participate and conduct operational and basic research and involve in
development of new medical laboratory diagnostic technologies.
§ Establish and monitor programs to ensure the accuracy of tests.
§ Plan and monitor laboratory logistic procurement, evaluation, setup, auditing
and safe disposal
§ Provide professional services, leadership and quality assurance in
clinical/public health laboratories
§ Monitor and maintain proper functioning of medical laboratory
§ Supervise medical laboratory staff.
§ Develop, evaluate and update laboratory standard operational procedures.
§ Demonstrate leadership and management skills in health/research institutions
§ Engage in policy, professional standards, and continuing professional
development issues pertaining to medical laboratory profession.
§ Collect, preserve, store and transport referral specimens for proper and safe
§ Communicate effectively both verbally and non-verbally.
§ Collect, document, retrieve and interpret laboratory data clearly and safely.
§ Forecast laboratory supplies and equipment for procurement
§ Undergo method selection process and prepare acceptance criteria for supplies
and equipment after procurement
§ Review all contracts to make sure the laboratory’s requirements are being met.
§ Prepare specification and undergo item selection process for purchase
§ Engage in preparation of contractual agreement and legal frame work
§ Determine how payments will be made, and how the vendor will assure
reliable availability and delivery of supplies and reagents.
To be admitted to the regular Program, candidates must:
· Meet the set entrance criteria for Higher Education institutions.
· Satisfy the academic rules and regulations of the university.
· Present diploma in Medical Laboratory Technician/Technology/Sciences who
meet the admission criteria set by authorized institution. Diploma/advanced
diploma/ level IV graduates in Medical Laboratory Sciences, passed
certificate of competency (COC) exam and able to pass entry exam of the
· Be physically and mentally healthy and fit to the program
· Applicants with minor physical problems that would not hinder effective
training should be considered in to the school
· However, any student with any visual problem and any problem in
manipulation of laboratory equipment using his/her both hands should
not be selected to join the school.
· Students who are unable to hear and speak
Advanced Standing Program
Admission of the advanced standing applicants to the School of Medical Laboratory Sciences
will be made based on the existing University’s rules and regulations. Applicant will be
registered with freshman students, however he/she will directly join medical laboratory
department when others selecting their preference department according to rule and regulations
of the university.
To be enrolled to medical laboratory sciences department:
Ø Graduate requirement
Graduation requirement will be according to the university’s rule and regulation. Thus, a student
enrolled in the BSc Medical Laboratory Science program is eligible for graduation if and only if
· Has taken all the required modules for the program and obtained a minimum CGPA of
· Student should be able to pass comprehensive exam of the department/school, both in
theory and practice before graduation.
· Has not scored “F” grade in any module, should not score less than “C” grade in any
core module and should not score less than “C-” grade for any supportive module.
· A student shall score at least “C-“for any supportive modules
· Has carried out a student research project on a selected and agreed topic of research
problem and scored a minimum of “C” grade in his/her research report.
· Pass successfully the comprehensive exam.
The minimum passing mark for the Comprehensive exam (Internal plus external) is 60%. If a
student failed to score the above-mentioned result, he or she should be delayed for three months.
During this period the student will be attached to hospital laboratories for further practice and/or
given an assignment and re-evaluated. The evaluation shall be consisted of hospital attachment
evaluation (40%), written examination (40%) and oral examination (internal examination)
(20%). This should be conducted until competency is ascertained.
Ø Degree Nomenclature
The degree to be awarded to the students after completion of the program will bear the
English version: “Bachelor of Science Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences”
Amharic version: “የሳይንስ ባችለር ዲግሪ በህክምና ላቦራቶሪ ሳይንስ”